There are many different types of photography:
Black and white photography
These are some photography equipment that are needed like camcorder and digital camera for use on the go.There is also a traditional camera but it is not as portable.
Aperture is a device that controls the amount of light passing through an opening. The size of the aperture is measured in F-stop.
Focusing is a feature in most cameras that allows it to make the image clearer. Inexpensive cameras have a fixed focus which is around 3 meters to infinity.
Shutter speed is the amount of time the shutter is open, normally shutter speed is in 1/60 of a second, anything slower would have to be put on a tripod or some other sort of image stabilization.
ISO speed affects the shutter speed/ aperture combinations you can use to obtain correct exposure .
source : http://www.photoxels.com/tutorial_iso.html
Metering is a process which has the camera take a light level reading and this determines a suitable aperture and shutter speed for the right exposure.There are various metering modes in cameras for the user to choose.
White balance is needed to get the colours in the image to be as accurate as possible. There are different types of cameras with different types of types of white balance options . Exp:Tungsten, cloudy, auto and flash.
There are many photography techniques that help get our white balance right,etc. Exp : High speed photography to get a really cool slow motion picture or video.